Borobudur Temple

History of Borobudur Temple and the origins of Borobudur

A complete history of Borobudur Temple – Borobudur temple is a Buddhist temple located in Magelang City, Central Java province.

Borobudur Temple is the largest Buddhist temple in the world, and one of the largest Buddhist monuments in the world.

Because of its grandeur and majesty, this temple, built in the 8th century, has been established by UNESCO as one of the world's cultural heritage.

Borobudur Temple was built during the reign of Syailendra dynasty. The shape of this stupa was erected by the Mahayana Buddhist believers during the reign of the Syailendra dynasty.

The history of Borobudur Temple was built in the 8th century. The origins of Borobudur temple are still covered with mystery, about who is the founder of Borobudur Temple and what was the purpose of building this temple.

Many stories and tales of Borobudur are circulating now known as local folklore.

Location of Borobudur Temple

Borobudur temple is located in Magelang City, Central Java province. The address of Borobudur temple is located at Jl. Badrawati, Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java.

The location of Borobudur temple is about 100 km from Semarang, 86 km from Surakarta and 40 km from IN Yogyakarta.

History of Borobudur Temple

How is Borobudur history early in development? What is the history of Borobudur Temple from now on? This time will be discussed about the history of Borobudur Temple brief from the beginning of the stand, rediscovery and restoration of the temple.

Origins of Borobudur Temple

There is a long history in the establishment of Borobudur temple. To date there is no written evidence explaining who built the Borobudur and what the purpose of building this temple. It is estimated that Borobudur temple was built in 800 CE.

The approximate time of the construction of the temple is based on comparisons between the types of characters written on the closed foot Karmawibhangga with the type of characters commonly used on the royal inscriptions of the Century 8th and 9th. Borobudur temple was built during the reign of the Syailendra dynasty in central Java that coincided between the period from 760 to 830 CE. The process of developing Borobudur temple is estimated to spend 75 to 100 years. The new Borobudur temple was completely completed 100% during the reign of the King Samaratungga in 825 CE.

Founder of Borobudur Temple

Who built Borobudur temple? It is still unknown to who built the Borobudur temple. The obvious Borobudur temple was built during the glory of Syailendra dynasty. In addition there was also a confusion of Borobudur temple relics of what religion, whether Buddhism or Hinduism.

It is known that the people of Syailendra dynasty were devout Mahayana Buddhist religions. However, based on the findings of the inscription Sojomerto showed that they were probably Hindu Shiva. In that era, many Hindu and Buddhist temples were constructed in the plains of Kedu.

There is also the sacred temple of Shiwalingga near the Borobudur area which is a Hindu temple. Although it is generally agreed Borobudur temple relics of the Buddha kingdom. Borobudur temple itself was built in a period of almost the same time as the temples in the plain of Prambanan, although Borobudur was completed first around the year 825 A.D.

Development process of Borobudur Temple

The beginning of Borobudur temple was a very large single stupa design crowned its peak. Because the stupa is too large and heavy is considered to be harmful, then the stupa was demolished and replaced into three rows of small stupas and one parent stupa as it is now.

Here are the approximate stages of Borobudur development:

First Stage

The first stage of Borobudur temple construction was done by laying the temple base. The period of Borobudur development is not known for sure and is expected to start in 750 CE. Borobudur was built on a natural hill, the top of the hill was flatten and the flat yard expanded.

Borobudur is made of andesite stone, but not entirely. The hill portion of the land is compacted and closed the stone structure so that it resembles a shell that wraps the ground. The rest of the hill is closed stone structure by layer. Initially, Borobudur was built with the level as pyramid design. However, the arrangement was changed and was instead constructed the first three steps to cover the original structure of the altered pyramid.

Second Stage

In the second phase of development not much development process is done. The existing one only performed the addition of two square steps, a ledge fence and a circular active. On it was directly constructed a single large stupa.

Third Stage

In the third phase of construction there was change in building design. Active over the circle with a large single-parent stupa unloaded and replaced three circular swirls. Smaller stupas were built lined up in the Undak-under grounds with one large main stupa in the middle.

The foundation of the temple is also somewhat widened and then constructed an additional leg that wraps the original leg while closing the Karmawibhangga relief. Large stupa changes because the stupa is too big and heavy so replaced three small stupas and one parent stupa.

Fourth stage

At the fourth stage or the last stage of development is done slight minor changes and finishing. Minor changes include relief of reliefs, addition of the outer ledge fence, ladder changes and footrest of the doorway and toe widening.

After a small change was completed, the Borobudur temple was completed. In the end, Borobudur temple is estimated to be completed in total around 850 CE.

Discovery of Borobudur Temple

The history of Borobudur temple next entered the rediscovery stage. Please note that Borobudur Temple was hidden and desolations for centuries. Borobudur was buried under a layer of volcanic dirt and dust which was then overgrown by trees and bushland until Borobudur was actually resembling a hill. It is unknown why Borobudur was abandoned and left uncared for.

It is estimated that between 928 and 1006 CE when King Mpu Sindok moved the capital of Medang kingdom to the East Java region because of volcanic eruptions became a factor why Borobudur Abandoned, although this is also uncertain.

The inclusion of the Islamic kingdom in the 15th century also made Borobudur unforgettable. Although there are stories and legends of Borobudur Temple that circulated about the success of this temple in the past.

New in 1814 AD, Borobudur Temple again found again. At that time Java was under British rule led by Thomas Stamford Raffles as Governor-General. Raffles has an interest in Javanese history and culture. During an inspection to Semarang, Raffles heard a large monument hidden in the woods near Bumisegoro village. He then sent H. C. Cornelius, a Dutch engineer, investigated the existence of this great building. He reported the findings and sketched the Borobudur temple on Raffles. Raffles is also considered as a rediscovery of Borobudur temple and began to attract the world's attention to the existence of this ever-lost monument.

Hartmann, a Dutch East Indies government official in the residency of Kedu continues to work Cornelius. In the year 1835 CE, finally all parts of the temple building have been shaken and can be seen. The Dutch East Indies government commissioned F. C. Wilsen, a Dutch engineer in engineering to study the monument.

After that, research related to Borobudur Temple by the Government of Dutch East Indies. Borobudur was increasingly famous, inviting temple collectors to visit. Borobudur was also a target for the temple artifacts Thief to be sold for expensive.

In 1882, the chief inspector of cultural artifacts suggested that Borobudur be completely demolished and its reliability was transferred to the museum due to unstable conditions, uncertainty and theft are marbling in the monument.

However archaeologist named Groenveldt who appointed the government held a thorough investigation of the site and then suggested that the building be left intact and not dismantled for Moved.

Restoration of Borobudur Temple

The history of Borobudur Temple continues with restoration process. In 1900 CE, the government of Dutch East Indies took a step in preserving the monument. Formed a commission consisting of three officers to examine this monument consisting of an art historian named Brandes.

A Dutch engineer and soldier named Theodoor Van Erp and the building construction expert engineer of the Department of Public Works named Van de Kamer. Restoration of the temple is done by paying attention to many things. Among other things are improvements in drainage system, building angle arrangement, harmful stone removal, strengthening of the first ledge fence and restoration of several niches, Gates, Stupas and major stupas.

Another thing to add is the creation of a temple page fence and cleaning area. The restoration of Borobudur temple was carried out from 1907 to 1911 CE. After Indonesia became independent, the government also had several restorations despite small scale. In the late 1960s, the Indonesian Government made a request to the international community for a major refurbishment to protect the monument. The Indonesian Government in cooperation with UNESCO took steps for a thorough improvement of the temple in a large project that started from 1975 to 1982.

After the renovation, precisely in the year 1991, UNESCO then incorporated Borobudur Temple to the list of World Heritage sites and entered into the cultural criteria. Well that's the explanation of the brief history of Borobudur Temple and the origin of Borobudur temple. Currently, Borobudur Temple is one of the most visited tourist attractions in Indonesia. Borobudur able to attract local and foreign tourists as one of the world's most famous cultural heritage. A reference to the history of Borobudur Temple.

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